Price Ceiling in Economics and Its Implications


A price ceiling sets the most extreme lawful price a dealer may charge for an item or administration. A price at or underneath the ceiling is legitimate; a price above it is most certainly not.

The basis for building up price ceilings (or ceiling prices) on particular items is that they purportedly empower customers to acquire some “fundamental” great or administration that they couldn’t manage the cost of at the balance price.

Cases are lease controls and usury laws, which indicate greatest “prices” in the types of lease and intrigue that can be charged to borrowers.

Graphical Representation

Price celing

We can demonstrate the impacts of price ceilings graphically. Assume that quickly rising world pay supports the buy of vehicles and movements the interest for gas to the correct with the goal that the market balance price comes to $3.50 per gallon, appeared as P0 in Figure  .

The quickly rising price of fuel significantly loads low-and direct wage family units, which weight government to “accomplish something.”

To hold gas prices down, the administration forces a ceiling price Pc of $3 per gallon.

To affect the market, a price ceiling must be beneath the equilibrium price. A ceiling price of $4, for instance, would have had no impact on the price of fuel in the present circumstance.

Impacts of Price Ceiling

What are the impacts of this $3 ceiling price? The proportioning capacity of the free market is rendered incapable.

Since the ceiling price Pc is underneath the market-clearing price P0 , there is an enduring deficiency of gas. The amount of fuel requested at Pc is Qd and the amount provided is just Qs; a constant overabundance request or deficiency of sum Qd – Qs happens.

The price ceiling Pc keeps the typical market modification in which rivalry among purchasers offers up price, initiating more generation and proportioning a few purchasers out of the market. That procedure would typically proceed until the point when the lack vanished at the harmony price and amount, P0 + Q0. By keeping these market modifications from happening, the price ceiling postures two related issues.

What If Price Ceilings Go Wrong?

price ceiling

There is a considerable collection of research demonstrating that under a few conditions price ceilings can, incomprehensibly, prompt higher prices.

The main clarification is that price ceilings serve to organize arrangement among providers who might somehow or another contend on price.


All the more absolutely: Forming a cartel is beneficial, in light of the fact that it empowers ostensibly contending firms to act like an imposing business model, constraining amounts and raising prices.

In any case, framing a cartel is troublesome, in light of the fact that it is important to concede to amounts and prices, and on the grounds that each firm will have a motivating force to “cheat”, that is, to offer more than concurred at by bringing down prices. (Antitrust laws make arrangement significantly more troublesome due to lawful approvals.)

Having an outsider, for example, a controller report and implement a most extreme price level can make it simpler for the organizations to concede to a price and to screen evaluating. We can see the administrative price as a point of convergence which is normal for the two gatherings to charge.


One research paper recording this wonder is Knittel and Stangel. The creators found that in the 1980s in the United States, in states that settled a loan fee ceiling of 18% firms charged a rate just marginally underneath the ceiling.

Be that as it may, in states without a loan fee ceiling, financing costs were essentially lower. (The creators did not discover any distinction in costs which could clarify the outcome.)

Case Study For Price Ceilings

We can give here the case of Pakistani government choice with respect to settling of a ceiling price for sugar at PKR45/kg.

The outcome was sugar became absent from the market because of a rigidity of sugar suppliers and the failure of the Pakistani government to keep up supply even in the utility stores run by the Government to fulfill the huge request of the sugar. The foreign made sugar expect time to be readily available to the nation, and it was not profitable to offer at the rate settled by the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

In the end the legislature went for a survey appeal to in the Supreme Court and looked for the withdrawal of the prior choice of the Supreme Court.

In the long run obsession of ceiling price was pulled back and the market balance was accomplished between PKR55-60/kg (Supreme Court of Pakistan choice, 2006– 2007).


So where price ceilings if properly imposed can cause a great boost in sales, they can also work the other way round if not administered properly.


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